### Kepler's Equation: Eccentric Anomaly Values at the Quarter-period - Part 2

I am circling back around to post some additional information about elliptical motion at the quarter period.

According to Kepler's Equation for Elliptical Motion,

E = M +

*e*sin(E) Equation 1At the quarter period, the

*Mean Anomaly*, M, becomes π/2 and this equation becomes

E = π/2 +

*e*sin(E) Equation 2A plot of sin(E) at T/4 points for

*e*going from 0 to 1 follows.

This graph, and the data that produced it, are posted on the Desmos website: Plot of sin(E) at the Quarter Period

These data points were computed numerically.

The first column, labelled x

_{1}, contains the

*e*values.

The second column is the

*Eccentric Anomaly*, E, at T/4.

The third column is sin(E) at T/4.

This data is available for use, for anybody interested. Feel free to edit it, or plot functions using the data. However, if you want to save your work, you'll have to create your own account first (it's free.)

Equation 2 can be reduced to

sin(E) = cos[

*e*sin(E)] Equation 3or

x = cos(

*e*x) Equation 4where x = sin(E).

Note that when

*e*= 1, Equation 4 reduces to the familiar form of the definition of the Dottie Number: x = cos(x). In other words, the Dottie Number is just one point on the curve that solves Equation 4.

Now consider the first derivative of E with respect to (w.r.t.)

*e*. Equation 1 is differentiated w.r.t.

*e*to yield

Equation 5 is used to differentiate sin(E) w.r.t.

*e*:

or

A plot of d[sin(E)] / d

*e*at the quarter period follows:

This graph, and the data that produced it, are posted on the Desmos website: Plot of d[sin(E)]/de at the Quarter Period

Next, consider the second derivative of sin(E) w.r.t.

*e*:

A plot of d

^{2}[sin(E)] / d

*e*

^{2}at the quarter period follows:

This graph, and the data that produced it, are posted on the Desmos website: Plot of d

^{2}[sin(E)]/de

^{2}at the Quarter Period

This plot takes a zero value at approximately x = 0.643638135454661. This means the plot for sin(E) values at the quarter period has a point of inflection. For 0 <

*e*< 0.643638135454661 the plot for sin(E) is concave down. For 0.643638135454661 <

*e*< 1 the plot for sin(E) is concave up.

Going through similar steps for cos(E), analogous to Equation 3, values for E

_{T/4}can be found as the solution to the equation

cos(E) = -sin[

*e*sin(E)]When

*e*= 1, cos(E

_{T/4}) = - sin(D), where D is the Dottie Number.

Here is a plot of cos(E) at T/4 points for

*e*going from 0 to 1.

The first and second derivatives are

Plots of these derivatives are posted at the following URLs:

First Derivative of cos(E) w.r.t. e at the Quarter Period.

Second Derivative of cos(E) w.r.t. e at the Quarter Period.

Since the second derivative never takes a zero value over the range of interest, this means the curve for cos(E) does not have a point of inflection over this range. (Because the concavity of this curve does not change, perhaps this feature would make it easier to work with cosine than sine. For example, a straight line bounding function would not have the risk of the function diverging away from it.)

In fact, here is a plot of cos(E

_{T/4}) with two simple bounding functions:

cos(E) at the Quarter Period with Two Simple Bounding Functions.

Looking at other properties of sin(E) at the quarter period ...

Labels: Dottie Number, elliptical motion, Keplerâ€™s Equation